There is a wide variety of PtX technologies and an equally wide range in the development status of these technologies. In addition to the technical topics, spatial, economic, ecological and social aspects are also relevant for concrete measures for transformation when it comes to bringing the technologies into application. Fraunhofer UMSICHT therefore analyzes and evaluates various power-to-gas (PtG), power-to-liquid (PtL) and power-to-solid (PtS) technologies with regard to technical, infrastructural and systemic aspects. From the findings, the researchers derive recommendations for action on the aforementioned topics and for the further development of the assessment methodology, which are aimed at industry and policy makers.
The recommendations made here emerge in a phase of high dynamics in the transformation process: The warnings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) intensify with each report, the climate protection targets set have not yet been achieved, energy and climate policy is currently being realigned, the legal framework is being revised and global political incidents are having a massive impact.
As boundary conditions change, re-evaluations or weighting of requirements and measures may also become necessary.. Against the backdrop of the very limited time available for implementing effective climate protection measures, the still very large scope of work and the existing uncertainties, however, what will be most important is the determination with which the transformation process is driven forward.
To achieve the climate protection targets, all relevant decision-making and action levels must therefore be activated. It is important to rapidly implement technologies that are already available today, taking systemic requirements into account. Green production processes and products should be evaluated and promoted in a goal-oriented manner. Successful transformation also involves continuously optimizing the overall system by developing and integrating new technologies.